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EU.OPS

GM1 ORO.FTL.105(17) Definitions

OPERATING CREW MEMBER
A person on board an aircraft is either a crew member or a passenger. If a crew member is not a passenger on board an aircraft he/she should be considered as ‘carrying out duties’. The crew member remains an operating crew member during in-flight rest. In-flight rest counts in full as FDP, and for the purpose of ORO.FTL.210.

ORO.FTL.110 Operator Responsibilities

An operator shall:
(a)    publish duty rosters sufficiently in advance to provide the opportunity for crew members to plan adequate rest;
(b)    ensure that flight duty periods are planned in a way that enables crew members to remain sufficiently free from fatigue so that they can operate to a satisfactory level of safety under all circumstances;
(c)    specify reporting times that allow sufficient time for ground duties;
(d)    take into account the relationship between the frequency and pattern of flight duty periods and rest periods and give consideration to the cumulative effects of undertaking long duty hours combined with minimum rest periods;
(e)    allocate duty patterns which avoid practices that cause a serious disruption of an established sleep/work pattern, such as alternating day/night duties;
(f)    comply with the provisions concerning disruptive schedules in accordance with ARO.OPS.230;
(g)    provide rest periods of sufficient time to enable crew members to overcome the effects of the previous duties and to be rested by the start of the following flight duty period;
(h)     plan recurrent extended recovery rest periods and notify crew members sufficiently in advance;
(i)    plan flight duties in order to be completed within the allowable flight duty period taking into account the time necessary for pre-flight duties, the sector and turnaround times;
(j)    change a schedule and/or crew arrangements if the actual operation exceeds the maximum flight duty period on more than 33% of the flight duties in that schedule during a scheduled seasonal period.

AMC1 ORO.FTL.110 Operator Responsibilities

SCHEDULING
(a)    Scheduling has an important impact on a crew member’s ability to sleep and to maintain a proper level of alertness. When developing a workable roster, the operator should strike a fair balance between the commercial needs and the capacity of individual crew members to work effectively. Rosters should be developed in such a way that they distribute the amount of work evenly among those that are involved.
(b)    Schedules should allow for flights to be completed within the maximum permitted flight duty period and flight rosters should take into account the time needed for pre- flight duties, taxiing, the flight- and turnaround times. Other factors to be considered when planning duty periods should include:
(1)    the allocation of work patterns which avoid undesirable practices such as alternating day/night duties, alternating eastward-westward or westward- eastward time zone transitions, positioning of crew members so that a serious disruption of established sleep/work patterns occurs;
(2)    scheduling sufficient rest periods especially after long flights crossing many time zones; and
(3)    preparation of duty rosters sufficiently in advance with planning of recurrent extended recovery rest periods and notification of the crew members well in advance to plan adequate pre-duty rest.

AMC1 ORO.FTL.110(j) Operator Responsibilities

PUBLICATION OF ROSTERS
Rosters should be published 14 days in advance. AMC1 ORO.FTL.110(a) Operator Responsibilities OPERATIONAL ROBUSTNESS OF ROSTERS
The operator should establish and monitor performance indicators for operational robustness of rosters.

GM1 ORO.FTL.110(a) Operator Responsibilities

OPERATIONAL ROBUSTNESS OF ROSTERS
Performance indicators for operational robustness of rosters should support the operator in the assessment of the stability of its rostering system. Performance indicators for operational robustness of rosters should at least measure how often a rostered crew pairing for a duty period is achieved within the planned duration of that duty period. Crew pairing means rostered positioning and flights for crew members in one duty period.

ORO.FTL.115 Crew Member Responsibilities

Crew members shall:
(a)     comply with point CAT.GEN.MPA.100(b) of Annex IV (Part-CAT); and
(b)     make optimum use of the opportunities and facilities for rest provided and plan and use their rest periods properly.

ORO.FTL.120 Fatigue Risk Management (FRM)

(a)   When FRM is required by this Subpart or an applicable certification specification, the operator shall establish, implement and maintain a FRM as an integral part of its management system. The FRM shall ensure compliance with the essential requirements in points 7.f, 7.g and 8.f of Annex IV to Regulation (EC) No. 216/2008. The FRM shall be described in the operations manual.
(b)     The FRM established, implemented and maintained shall provide for continuous improvement to the overall performance of the FRM and shall include:
(1)    a description of the philosophy and principles of the operator with regard to FRM, referred to as the FRM policy;
(2)    documentation of the FRM processes, including a process for making personnel aware of their responsibilities and the procedure for amending this documentation;
(3)    scientific principles and knowledge;
(4)    a hazard identification and risk assessment process that allows managing the operational risk(s) of the operator arising from crew member fatigue on a continuous basis;
(5)    a risk mitigation process that provides for remedial actions to be implemented promptly, which are necessary to effectively mitigate the operator’s risk(s) arising from crew member fatigue and for continuous monitoring and regular assessment of the mitigation of fatigue risks achieved by such actions;
(6)    FRM safety assurance processes;
(7)    FRM promotion processes.
(8)  The FRM shall correspond to the flight time specification scheme, the size of the operator and the nature and complexity of its activities, taking into account the hazards and associated risks inherent in those activities and the applicable flight time specification scheme.
(c)  The operator shall take mitigating actions when the FRM safety assurance process shows that the required safety performance is not maintained.

AMC1 ORO.FTL.120(b)(1) Fatigue Risk Management (FRM)

COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT OPERATORS’ FRM POLICY
(a) The operator’s FRM policy should identify all the elements of FRM.
(b) The FRM policy should define to which operations FRM applies.
(c) The FRM policy should:
(1)  reflect the shared responsibility of management, flight and cabin crew , and other involved personnel;
(2)  state the safety objectives of FRM;
(3)  be signed by the accountable manager;
(4)  be communicated, with visible endorsement, to all the relevant areas and levels of the organisation;
(5)  declare management commitment to effective safety reporting;
(6)  declare management commitment to the provision of adequate resources for
(7)  FRM;
(8)  declare management commitment to continuous improvement of FRM;
(9)  require that clear lines of accountability for management, flight and cabin crew , and all other involved personnel are identified; and
(10)  require periodic reviews to ensure it remains relevant and appropriate.

AMC2 ORO.FTL.120(b)(2) Fatigue Risk Management (FRM)

COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT OPERATORS’ FRM DOCUMENTATION
The operator should develop and keep current FRM documentation that describes and records:
(a)  FRM policy and objectives;
(b)  FRM processes and procedures;
(c)  accountabilities, responsibilities and authorities for these processes and procedures;
(d)  mechanisms for on-going involvement of management, flight and cabin crew
(e)  members, and all other involved personnel;
(f)  FRM training programmes, training requirements and attendance records;
(g)  scheduled and actual flight times, duty periods and rest periods with deviations and reasons for deviations; and
(h)  FRM outputs including findings from collected data, recommendations, and actions taken.

AMC1 ORO.FTL.120(b)(4) Fatigue Risk Management (FRM)

COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT OPERATORS’ IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARDS
The operator should develop and maintain three documented processes for fatigue hazard identification:
(a)  Predictive
(1)   The predictive process should identify fatigue hazards by examining crew scheduling and taking into account factors known to affect sleep and fatigue and their effects on performance. Methods of examination may include, but are not limited to:
(2)    operator or industry operational experience and data collected on similar types of operations;
(3)    evidence-based scheduling practices; and
(4)    bio-mathematical models.
(b)  Proactive
(1)    The proactive process should identify fatigue hazards within current flight operations. Methods of examination may include, but are not limited to:
(2)    self-reporting of fatigue risks;
(3)   crew fatigue surveys;
(4)   relevant flight and cabin crew performance data;
(5)   available safety databases and scientific studies; and
(6)   analysis of planned versus actual time worked.
(c)  Reactive
The reactive process should identify the contribution of fatigue hazards to reports and events associated with potential negative safety consequences in order to determine how the impact of fatigue could have been minimized. At a minimum, the process may be triggered by any of the following:
(1)   fatigue reports;
(2)   confidential reports;
(3)   audit reports;
(4)   incidents; or
(5)   flight data monitoring (FDM) events.

AMC2 ORO.FTL.120(b)(4) Fatigue Risk Management (FRM)

COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT OPERATORS’ RISK ASSESSMENT
An operator should develop and implement risk assessment procedures that determine the probability and potential severity of fatigue-related events and identify when the associated risks require mitigation. The risk assessment procedures should review identified hazards and link them to:
(a)     operational processes;
(b)     their probability;
(c)     possible consequences; and
(d)     the effectiveness of existing safety barriers and controls.

AMC1 ORO.FTL.120(b)(5) Fatigue Risk Management (FRM)

COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT OPERATORS’ RISK MITIGATION
An operator should develop and implement risk mitigation procedures that:
(a)     select the appropriate mitigation strategies;
(b)     implement the mitigation strategies; and
(c)     monitor the strategies’ implementation and effectiveness.

AMC1 ORO.FTL.120(b)(8) Fatigue Risk Management (FRM)

COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT OPERATORS’ FRM SAFETY ASSURANCE PROCESSES
The operator should develop and maintain FRM safety assurance processes to:
(a)     provide for continuous FRM performance monitoring, analysis of trends, and measurement to validate the effectiveness of the fatigue safety risk controls. The sources of data may include, but are not limited to:
(1)   hazard reporting and investigations;
(2)   audits and surveys; and
(3)   reviews and fatigue studies;
(b)     provide a formal process for the management of change which should include, but is not limited to:
(1)   identification of changes in the operational environment that may affect FRM;
(2)   identification of changes within the organisation that may affect FRM; and
(3)   consideration of available tools which could be used to maintain or improve FRM performance prior to implementing changes; and
(c)     provide for the continuous improvement of FRM.
(1)   This should include, but is not limited to:
(2)   the elimination and/or modification of risk controls have had unintended consequences or that are no longer needed due to changes in the operational or organisational environment;
(3)   routine evaluations of facilities, equipment, documentation and procedures; and
(4)   the determination of the need to introduce new processes and procedures to mitigate emerging fatigue-related risks.

AMC1 ORO.FTL.120(b)(9) Fatigue Risk Management (FRM)

COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT OPERATORS’ FRM PROMOTION PROCESS
FRM promotion processes should support the on-going development of FRM, the continuous improvement of its overall performance, and attainment of optimum safety levels.
The following should be established and implemented by the operator as part of its FRM:
(a)   training programmes to ensure competency commensurate with the roles and responsibilities of management, flight and cabin crew , and all other involved personnel under the planned FRM; and
(b)   an effective FRM communication plan that:
(1) explains FRM policies, procedures and responsibilities to all relevant stakeholders; and
(2) describes communication channels used to gather and disseminate FRM- related information

GM1 ORO.FTL.105(17) Definitions

OPERATING CREW MEMBER
A person on board an aircraft is either a crew member or a passenger. If a crew member is not a passenger on board an aircraft he/she should be considered as ‘carrying out duties’. The crew member remains an operating crew member during in-flight rest. In-flight rest counts in full as FDP, and for the purpose of ORO.FTL.210.

ORO.FTL.110 Operator Responsibilities

An operator shall:
(a)  publish duty rosters sufficiently in advance to provide the opportunity for crew members to plan adequate rest;
(b)  ensure that flight duty periods are planned in a way that enables crew members to remain sufficiently free from fatigue so that they can operate to a satisfactory level of safety under all circumstances;
(c)  specify reporting times that allow sufficient time for ground duties;
(d)  take into account the relationship between the frequency and pattern of flight duty periods and rest periods and give consideration to the cumulative effects of undertaking long duty hours combined with minimum rest periods;
(e)  allocate duty patterns which avoid practices that cause a serious disruption of an established sleep/work pattern, such as alternating day/night duties;
(f)  comply with the provisions concerning disruptive schedules in accordance with ARO.OPS.230;
(g)  provide rest periods of sufficient time to enable crew members to overcome the effects of the previous duties and to be rested by the start of the following flight duty period;
(h)  plan recurrent extended recovery rest periods and notify crew members sufficiently in advance;
(i)  plan flight duties in order to be completed within the allowable flight duty period taking into account the time necessary for pre-flight duties, the sector and turnaround times;
(j)  change a schedule and/or crew arrangements if the actual operation exceeds the maximum flight duty period on more than 33% of the flight duties in that schedule during a scheduled seasonal period.

AMC1 ORO.FTL.110 Operator Responsibilities
SCHEDULING
(a)   Scheduling has an important impact on a crew member’s ability to sleep and to maintain a proper level of alertness. When developing a workable roster, the operator should strike a fair balance between the commercial needs and the capacity of individual crew members to work effectively. Rosters should be developed in such a way that they distribute the amount of work evenly among those that are involved.
(b)   Schedules should allow for flights to be completed within the maximum permitted flight duty period and flight rosters should take into account the time needed for pre- flight duties, taxiing, the flight- and turnaround times. Other factors to be considered when planning duty periods should include:
(1)  the allocation of work patterns which avoid undesirable practices such as alternating day/night duties, alternating eastward-westward or westward- eastward time zone transitions, positioning of crew members so that a serious disruption of established sleep/work patterns occurs;
(2)  scheduling sufficient rest periods especially after long flights crossing many time zones; and
(3)  preparation of duty rosters sufficiently in advance with planning of recurrent extended recovery rest periods and notification of the crew members well in advance to plan adequate pre-duty rest.

AMC1 ORO.FTL.110(j) Operator Responsibilities

PUBLICATION OF ROSTERS
Rosters should be published 14 days in advance. AMC1 ORO.FTL.110(a) Operator Responsibilities OPERATIONAL ROBUSTNESS OF ROSTERS
The operator should establish and monitor performance indicators for operational robustness of rosters.

GM1 ORO.FTL.110(a) Operator Responsibilities

OPERATIONAL ROBUSTNESS OF ROSTERS
Performance indicators for operational robustness of rosters should support the operator in the assessment of the stability of its rostering system. Performance indicators for operational robustness of rosters should at least measure how often a rostered crew pairing for a duty period is achieved within the planned duration of that duty period. Crew pairing means rostered positioning and flights for crew members in one duty period.

ORO.FTL.115 Crew Member Responsibilities

Crew members shall:
(a)   comply with point CAT.GEN.MPA.100(b) of Annex IV (Part-CAT); and
(b)   make optimum use of the opportunities and facilities for rest provided and plan and use their rest periods properly.

ORO.FTL.120 Fatigue Risk Management (FRM)

(a)   When FRM is required by this Subpart or an applicable certification specification, the operator shall establish, implement and maintain a FRM as an integral part of its management system. The FRM shall ensure compliance with the essential requirements in points 7.f, 7.g and 8.f of Annex IV to Regulation (EC) No. 216/2008. The FRM shall be described in the operations manual.
(b)   The FRM established, implemented and maintained shall provide for continuous improvement to the overall performance of the FRM and shall include:
(1)  a description of the philosophy and principles of the operator with regard to FRM, referred to as the FRM policy;
(2)   documentation of the FRM processes, including a process for making personnel aware of their responsibilities and the procedure for amending this documentation;
(3)   scientific principles and knowledge;
(4)   a hazard identification and risk assessment process that allows managing the operational risk(s) of the operator arising from crew member fatigue on a continuous basis;
(5)   a risk mitigation process that provides for remedial actions to be implemented promptly, which are necessary to effectively mitigate the operator’s risk(s) arising from crew member fatigue and for continuous monitoring and regular assessment of the mitigation of fatigue risks achieved by such actions;
(6)   FRM safety assurance processes;
(7)   FRM promotion processes.
(8)   The FRM shall correspond to the flight time specification scheme, the size of the operator and the nature and complexity of its activities, taking into account the hazards and associated risks inherent in those activities and the applicable flight time specification scheme.
(c)   The operator shall take mitigating actions when the FRM safety assurance process shows that the required safety performance is not maintained.

AMC1 ORO.FTL.120(b)(1) Fatigue Risk Management (FRM)

COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT OPERATORS’ FRM POLICY
(a)    The operator’s FRM policy should identify all the elements of FRM.
(b)    The FRM policy should define to which operations FRM applies.
(c)    The FRM policy should:
(1) reflect the shared responsibility of management, flight and cabin crew , and other involved personnel;
(2) state the safety objectives of FRM;
(3) be signed by the accountable manager;
(4) be communicated, with visible endorsement, to all the relevant areas and levels of the organisation;
(5) declare management commitment to effective safety reporting;
(6) declare management commitment to the provision of adequate resources for
(7) FRM;
(8) declare management commitment to continuous improvement of FRM;
(9) require that clear lines of accountability for management, flight and cabin crew , and all other involved personnel are identified; and
(10) require periodic reviews to ensure it remains relevant and appropriate.

AMC2 ORO.FTL.120(b)(2) Fatigue Risk Management (FRM)

COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT OPERATORS’ FRM DOCUMENTATION
The operator should develop and keep current FRM documentation that describes and records:
(a)   FRM policy and objectives;
(b)   FRM processes and procedures;
(c)   accountabilities, responsibilities and authorities for these processes and procedures;
(d)   mechanisms for on-going involvement of management, flight and cabin crew
(e)   members, and all other involved personnel;
(f)   FRM training programmes, training requirements and attendance records;
(g)   scheduled and actual flight times, duty periods and rest periods with deviations and reasons for deviations; and
(h)   FRM outputs including findings from collected data, recommendations, and actions taken.

AMC1 ORO.FTL.120(b)(4) Fatigue Risk Management (FRM)

COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT OPERATORS’ IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARDS
The operator should develop and maintain three documented processes for fatigue hazard identification:
(a)    Predictive
(1) The predictive process should identify fatigue hazards by examining crew scheduling and taking into account factors known to affect sleep and fatigue and their effects on performance. Methods of examination may include, but are not limited to:
(2) operator or industry operational experience and data collected on similar types of operations;
(3) evidence-based scheduling practices; and
(4) bio-mathematical models.

(b)    Proactive
(1)   The proactive process should identify fatigue hazards within current flight operations. Methods of examination may include, but are not limited to:
(2)   self-reporting of fatigue risks;
(3)   crew fatigue surveys;
(4)   relevant flight and cabin crew performance data;
(5)   available safety databases and scientific studies; and
(6)   analysis of planned versus actual time worked.
(c)    Reactive
The reactive process should identify the contribution of fatigue hazards to reports and events associated with potential negative safety consequences in order to determine how the impact of fatigue could have been minimized. At a minimum, the process may be triggered by any of the following:
(1)   fatigue reports;
(2)   confidential reports;
(3)   audit reports;
(4)   incidents; or
(5)   flight data monitoring (FDM) events.

AMC2 ORO.FTL.120(b)(4) Fatigue Risk Management (FRM)

COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT OPERATORS’ RISK ASSESSMENT
An operator should develop and implement risk assessment procedures that determine the probability and potential severity of fatigue-related events and identify when the associated risks require mitigation. The risk assessment procedures should review identified hazards and link them to:
(a) operational processes;
(b) their probability;
(c) possible consequences; and
(d) the effectiveness of existing safety barriers and controls.

AMC1 ORO.FTL.120(b)(5) Fatigue Risk Management (FRM)

COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT OPERATORS’ RISK MITIGATION
An operator should develop and implement risk mitigation procedures that:
(a) select the appropriate mitigation strategies;
(b) implement the mitigation strategies; and
(c) monitor the strategies’ implementation and effectiveness.

AMC1 ORO.FTL.120(b)(8) Fatigue Risk Management (FRM)

COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT OPERATORS’ FRM SAFETY ASSURANCE PROCESSES
The operator should develop and maintain FRM safety assurance processes to:
(a) provide for continuous FRM performance monitoring, analysis of trends, and measurement to validate the effectiveness of the fatigue safety risk controls. The sources of data may include, but are not limited to:
(1) hazard reporting and investigations;
(2) audits and surveys; and
(3) reviews and fatigue studies;
(b) provide a formal process for the management of change which should include, but is not limited to:
(1) identification of changes in the operational environment that may affect FRM;
(2) identification of changes within the organisation that may affect FRM; and
(3) consideration of available tools which could be used to maintain or improve FRM performance prior to implementing changes; and
(c) provide for the continuous improvement of FRM.
(1) This should include, but is not limited to:
(2) the elimination and/or modification of risk controls have had unintended consequences or that are no longer needed due to changes in the operational or organisational environment;
(3) routine evaluations of facilities, equipment, documentation and procedures; and
(4) the determination of the need to introduce new processes and procedures to mitigate emerging fatigue-related risks.

COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT OPERATORS’ FRM PROMOTION PROCESS
FRM promotion processes should support the on-going development of FRM, the continuous improvement of its overall performance, and attainment of optimum safety levels.
The following should be established and implemented by the operator as part of its FRM:
(a) training programmes to ensure competency commensurate with the roles and responsibilities of management, flight and cabin crew , and all other involved personnel under the planned FRM; and
(b) an effective FRM communication plan that:
(1) explains FRM policies, procedures and responsibilities to all relevant stakeholders; and
(2) describes communication channels used to gather and disseminate FRM- related information

ORO.FTL.125 Flight Time Specification Schemes

(a) Operators shall establish, implement and maintain flight time specification schemes that are appropriate for the type(s) of operation performed and that comply with Regulation (EC) No. 216/2008, this Subpart and other applicable legislation, including Directive 2000/79/EC.
(b) Before being implemented, flight time specification schemes, including any related
(c) FRM where required, shall be approved by the competent authority.
(d) To demonstrate compliance with Regulation (EC) No. 216/2008 and this Subpart, the operator shall apply the applicable certification specifications adopted by the Agency. Alternatively, if the operator wants to deviate from those certification specifications in accordance with Article 22(2) of Regulation (EC) No. 216/2008, it shall provide the competent authority with a full description of the intended deviation prior to implementing it. The description shall include any revisions to manuals or procedures that may be relevant, as well as an assessment demonstrating that the requirements of Regulation (EC) No. 216/2008 and of this Subpart are met.
(e) For the purpose of point ARO.OPS.235(d), within 2 years of the implementation of a deviation or derogation, the operator shall collect data concerning the granted deviation or derogation and analyse that data using scientific principles with a view to assessing the effects of the deviation or derogation on aircrew fatigue. Such analysis shall be provided in the form of a report to the competent authority.

ORO.FTL.200 Home Base

An operator shall assign a home base to each crew member.
CS FTL.1.200 Home Base
(a) The home base is a single airport location assigned with a high degree of permanence.
(b) In the case of a change of home base, the first recurrent extended recovery rest period prior to starting duty at the new home base is increased to 72 hours, including 3 local nights. Travelling time between the former home base and the new home base is positioning.

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